Benchmarking initiatives support the meaningful comparison of competing solutions to prominent problems in speech and language processing. Successive benchmarking evaluations typically reflect a progressive evolution from ideal lab conditions towards to those encountered in the wild. ASVspoof, the spoofing and deepfake detection initiative and challenge series, has followed the same trend. This article provides a summary of the ASVspoof 2021 challenge and the results of 37 participating teams. For the logical access task, results indicate that countermeasures solutions are robust to newly introduced encoding and transmission effects. Results for the physical access task indicate the potential to detect replay attacks in real, as opposed to simulated physical spaces, but a lack of robustness to variations between simulated and real acoustic environments.The DF task, new to the 2021 edition, targets solutions to the detection of manipulated, compressed speech data posted online. While detection solutions offer some resilience to compression effects, they lack generalization across different source datasets. In addition to a summary of the top-performing systems for each task, new analyses of influential data factors and results for hidden data subsets, the article includes a review of postchallenge results, an outline of the principal challenge limitations and a road-map for the future of ASVspoof. Link to the ASVspoof challenge and related resources: https://www.asvspoof.org/index2021.html
ASVspoof 2021: Towards spoofed and deepfake speech detection in the wild
Submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, 5 October 2022
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