Yes We can: Watermarking machine learning models beyond classification

Lounici, Sofiane; Njeh, Mohamed; Ermis, Orhan; Önen, Melek; Trabelsi, Slim
CFS 2021, 34th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium, June 21-25, 2021, Dubrovnik, Croatia (Virtual Conference)

Since machine learning models have become a valuable asset for companies, watermarking techniques have been developed to protect the intellectual property of these models and prevent model theft. We observe that current watermarking frameworks solely target image classification tasks, neglecting a considerable part of machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose to address this lack and study the watermarking process of various machine learning techniques such as machine translation, regression, binary image classification and reinforcement learning models. We adapt current definitions to each specific technique and we evaluate the main characteristics of the watermarking process, in particular the robustness of the models against a rational adversary. We show that watermarking models beyond classification is possible while preserving their overall performance. We further investigate various attacks and discuss the importance of the performance metric in the verification process and its impact on the success of the adversary.

Digital Security
Eurecom Ref:
© 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.