Nomadic: Normalising Maliciously-Secure Distance with Cosine Similarity for Two-Party Biometric Authentication

Cheng, Nan; Önen, Melek; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Chouchane, Oubaïda; Todisco, Massimiliano; Ibarrondo, Alberto
IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2023, Paper 2023/1684

Computing the distance between two non-normalized vectorsmathbfit andmathbfit , represented byDelta (mathbfit ,mathbfit ) and comparing it to a predefined public threshold ττ is an essential functionality used in privacy-sensitive applications such as biometric authentication, identification, machine learning algorithms ({em eg,} linear regression, k-nearest neighbors, etc.), and typo-tolerant password-based authentication. Tackling a widely used distance metric,{sc Nomadic} studies the privacy-preserving evaluation of cosine similarity in a two-party (2PC) distributed setting. We illustrate this setting in a scenario where a client uses biometrics to authenticate to a service provider, outsourcing the distance calculation to two computing servers. In this setting, we propose two novel 2PC protocols to evaluate the normalising cosine similarity between non-normalised two vectors followed by comparison to a public threshold, one in the semi-honest and one in the malicious setting. Our protocols combine additive secret sharing with function secret sharing, saving one communication round by employing a new building block to compute the composition of a function ff yielding a binary result with a subsequent binary gate. Overall, our protocols outperform all prior works, requiring only two communication rounds under a strong threat model that also deals with malicious inputs via normalisation. We evaluate our protocols in the setting of biometric authentication using voice, and the obtained results reveal a notable efficiency improvement compared to existing state-of-the-art works.

Sécurité numérique
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