Tomi Kinnunen, Md Sahidullah, Héctor Delgado, Massimiliano Todisco, Nicholas Evans, Junichi Yamagishi and Kong Aik Lee
INTERSPEECH 2017, Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, August 20-24, 2017, Stockholm, Sweden
Abstract: The ASVspoof initiative was created to promote the development of countermeasures which aim to protect automatic speaker verification (ASV) from spoofing attacks. The first community-led, common evaluation held in 2015 focused on countermeasures for speech synthesis and voice conversion spoofing attacks. Arguably, however, it is replay attacks which pose the greatest threat. Such attacks involve the replay of recordings collected from enrolled speakers in order to provoke false alarms and can be mounted with greater ease using everyday consumer devices. ASVspoof 2017, the second in the series, hence focused on the development of replay attack countermeasures. This paper describes the database, protocols and initial findings. The evaluation entailed highly heterogeneous acoustic recording and replay conditions which increased the equal error rate (EER) of a baseline ASV system from 1.76% to 31.46%. Submissions were received from 49 research teams, 20 of which improved upon a baseline replay spoofing detector EER of 24.77%, in terms of replay/non-replay discrimination. While largely successful, the evaluation indicates that the quest for countermeasures which are resilient in the face of variable replay attacks remains very much alive.