Nicholas Evans, Stan Z. Li, Sébastien Marcel, and Arun Ross
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Volume 10, N°4, April 2015, ISSN: 1556-6013
Abstract: While biometrics technology has created new solutions to person authentication and has evolved to play a critical role in personal, national, and global security, the potential for the technology to be fooled or spoofed is now widely acknowledged. For example, fingerprint verification systems can be spoofed with a synthetic material, such as gelatine, inscribed with the fingerprint ridges of an enrolled individual. Iris and face recognition systems are vulnerable to printed photographs or video sequences of an enrolled user's eye or face. Speaker recognition systems can be spoofed through the use of replayed, synthesized, or converted speech.