Nicholas Evans, Tomi Kinnunen, Junichi Yamagishi, Zhizheng Wu, Federico Alegre and Phillip De Leon
Book chapter in "Handbook of Biometric Anti-spoofing", Springer, S. Marcel, S. Li and M. Nixon, Eds., 2014
Abstract: Progress in the development of spoofing countermeasures for automatic speaker recognition is less advanced than equivalent work related to other biometric modalities. This chapter outlines the potential for even state-of-the-art automatic speaker recognition systems to be spoofed. While the use of a multitude of different datasets, protocols and metrics complicates the meaningful comparison of different vulnerabilities, we review previous work related to impersonation, replay, speech synthesis and voice conversion spoofing attacks. The article also presents an analysis of the early work to develop spoofing countermeasures. The literature shows that there is significant potential for automatic speaker verification systems to be spoofed, that significant further work is required to develop generalised countermeasures, that there is a need for standard datasets, evaluation protocols and metrics and that greater emphasis should be placed on text-dependent scenarios.